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Tuning connection-related parameters

These parameters can be set to appropriate values in the postgresql.conf file and these
parameter can be set at server start. The changes made to these parameters will only come
into effect once the PostgreSQL server is restarted, either using the restart mode of the
pg_ctl command or using the stop mode and then followed by the start mode of the
pg_ctl command. This can be done as follows:

  1. pg_ctl -D $PGDATA restart

Here, $PGDATA refers to the environment variable that refers to the data directory location
of the PostgreSQL server.
listen_addresses
port
max_connections
superuser_reserved_connections
unix_socket_directory
unix_socket_permissions

listen_addresses: The standard behavior of PostgreSQL is to respond to
connections from localhost. This default behavior usually needs alterations to
allow the PostgreSQL server to be accessed via the standard TCP/IP protocol
widely used in client-server communications. The de facto practice is to set this
value to * to allow the PostgreSQL server to listen to all incoming connections.
Otherwise, we need to mention a comma-separated list of IP addresses where
PostgreSQL needs to be responded. This gives an additional security control over
reaching the database instance directly from any IP address.

port: This parameter defines the port on which the PostgreSQL server will listen
for incoming client connection requests. The default value of this parameter is set
to 5432. If there are multiple PostgreSQL instances running on the same server,
the value of the port parameter for every PostgreSQL instance needs to be altered
to avoid port conflicts.

max_connections: This parameter governs the maximum number of concurrent
client connections that the server can support. This is a very important parameter
setting to other parameters such as work_mem that are dependent on this because
memory resources can be allocated on a per-client basis, so the maximum number
of clients in effect suggests the maximum possible memory use. The default value
of this parameter is 100
. If the requirement is to support thousands of client
connections, connection pooling software should be used to reduce the
connection overhead. On a Linux server with 8 GB of RAM, a value of 140 is a
good start. Increasing the value of this parameter will cause the PostgreSQL
server to request more shared memory from the operating system.

superuser_reserved_connections: This parameter governs the number of
connection slots reserved for superusers. The default value of this parameter is
set to 3
. This parameter can only be set at server restart.

unix_socket_directory: This parameter defines the directory to be used for
the Unix socket connections to the server. The default location is /tmp, but it can
be changed at build time. This parameter comes into effect during server start.
This parameter is irrelevant on Windows, which does not have socket
connections.

unix_socket_permissions: This parameter defines the access permissions of
the Unix domain socket. The default value is 0777, which means anyone can
connect using socket connections. This parameter value can be set only at server
start.

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